Forgotten History Annotations

DTI: Forgotten History coverThis document explains the continuity references, allusions, in-jokes, and scientific concepts contained in Star Trek: Department of Temporal Investigations: Forgotten History (FH).   I assume that the reader is familiar with the basic characters and background of the Trek universe.  Readers seeking further information on references to past Trek episodes or movies are advised to consult the Memory Alpha Star Trek wiki.  Information about Star Trek novels can be found at the Memory Beta wiki.

In particular, this novel is a sequel (and prequel) to DTI: Watching the Clock (WTC).  Hopefully it can be read and enjoyed without prior familiarity with WTC, but further information on the characters and scientific concepts herein can be found in my WTC annotations.

Be aware that this document contains spoilers for the whole of FH and for numerous episodes, films, and novels from all Trek series, particularly the original and animated series.  I would strongly recommend not reading it until one has completed the novel, since many of the notes contain spoilers for things not revealed until later scenes or chapters.

Episode and book titles are TOS unless otherwise indicated.  Episode and short-story titles are in quotes, while film and book titles are italicized.


ENT — Enterprise TOS — The Original Series TAS — The Animated Series
TNG — Next Generation DS9 — Deep Space Nine VGR — Voyager
VNG — Vanguard SCE — Starfleet Corps of Engineers TMP — Star Trek: The Motion Picture
ExM — Ex Machina WTC — Watching the Clock

Chapter Annotations

Dedication Fred Steiner was the most prolific composer for the original Star Trek, scoring over a dozen episodes (more than any other composer) as well as arranging/ghostwriting portions of Jerry Goldsmith’s Star Trek: The Motion Picture score and composing the score to the Next Generation episode “Code of Honor,” making him the only TOS composer to contribute to one of the modern series.
Epigraph Sh’Lesinas was mentioned in Watching the Clock (WTC) as an author of “time fiction,” i.e. science fiction focusing on time travel (since space travel is everyday life in the Trek era).  Her first name Vaacith is derived from the letters of Isaac Asimov’s name.  Her quote here is of course a paraphrase of George Santayana’s famous (and frequently misquoted) saying, “Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.”  “On the Edge of Yesteryear” is, equally of course, a play on the first two Guardian of Forever episodes, TOS: “The City on the Edge of Forever” and TAS: “Yesteryear.”
1 The Everett and the characters here were introduced in WTC.  The Tuesday in question is February 22, 2383.
The Delta Triangle and Elysia are from TAS: “The Time Trap.”  The name “Delta Triangle” is “redundant” because a delta is a triangular shape.  It’s not geometrically accurate because a triangle is a 2-dimensional figure and space is 3-dimensional.  The historical resonance is with the mythical Bermuda Triangle on Earth.
2 The Starfleet Corps of Engineers developing a means of travel to Elysia was shown in SCE: Where Time Stands Still by Dayton Ward and Kevin Dilmore.
Metaphasic radiation as a “fountain of youth” was seen in the film Star Trek: Insurrection.  The term doesn’t actually mean anything.  Metaphase is a stage of cell division (literally “altered aspect” or “appearance after [change]”), but I doubt that metaphasic radiation is meant to affect it, since the term “metaphasic” has also been used in ST for a type of deflector shield.
Entropy is the tendency of a system to tend toward disorder and the loss of useful energy, and is the reason perpetual-motion machines are impossible.  But if entropy were milder, there might be less energy loss.
6 We’ve seen dimensional interphase in “The Tholian Web.”  That interphase was expanded on in The Lost Era: The Sundered and TTN: The Red King, both by Andy Mangels & Mike Martin, and showed the interphase connecting different regions of our universe.
6-7 A manifold is a topological space.  Homeomorphism is also a concept from topology, referring to two different spaces or shapes that are topologically equivalent.
9 The Temporal Integrity Commission is a Starfleet “time police” agency from the 29th century, seen in VGR: “Future’s End” and “Relativity” and in WTC.
The design for the timeship is loosely inspired by the conjectural Balclutha class designed by fan artist Hal Schuster and appearing in the fan-published Files Magazine series.  But only loosely.
10 The Bozeman is from TNG: “Cause and Effect.”  Kirk’s 17 temporal violations were established in DS9: “Trials and Tribble-ations,” the debut of Agents Lucsly and Dulmur.
11 The DTI situation room appeared in WTC, but this is the first time I’ve described it in detail.
12 Identifying timelines by quantum signature is from TNG: “Parallels,” while quantum dating is ENT: “The Expanse” and somehow allows absolute rather than relative dating (which I attempted to handwave in WTC).
Chapter I
15 This scene follows the events of “Tomorrow is Yesterday.”
Antonio Delgado is named in honor of Roger Delgado and Anthony Ainley, the two main actors to play the archvillain the Master in Doctor Who.  This is not meant to imply that Delgado is especially villainous; it was originally just a placeholder name for my notes and outline, but I never got around to changing it.  Nor is he based on either of those actors; my mental model for the character was Hector Elizondo.
17 “Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence” is an aphorism coined or popularized by astronomer Carl Sagan in his television series Cosmos.
18 Gravitomagnetism is the kinetic effect of moving masses on other bodies, analogous (and mathematically quite similar) to magnetism as the kinetic effect of moving charges.  The specific gravitomagnetic effect Spock is referencing here is called frame-dragging, the “twisting” of spacetime around a dense rotating mass, and it will come into play later in the book.
Geodesics are unaccelerated paths through spacetime, or the shortest paths from one point to another.  On a flat surface or in flat Euclidean space, a geodesic (“the shortest distance between two points”) is a straight line.  On the curved surface of the Earth, a geodesic is an arc of a great circle, such as a meridian or the Equator.  In curved spacetime, geodesics can take complex shapes.  The problem with what happened in “Tomorrow is Yesterday” is that the Enterprise should have been able to move away from a black hole or other dense body at warp velocity, or even at high impulse.  The geodesics near a rotating black hole may spiral in toward it, but those are unaccelerated paths; a ship under thrust could pull away if it set the right course.  And warp drive, the ability to move effectively faster than light, should allow escape even from within the event horizon of a black hole, which is merely the distance at which the escape velocity from the singularity equals the speed of light.  (For an illustration of this, see Judith & Garfield Reeves-Stevens’ excellent novel Star Trek: Federation.)  So the ship having to struggle to break free from the Black Star at warp was problematical.  I tried to fudge an explanation here by throwing in “subspace geodesics,” but I’m not really satisfied with it.
“Tomorrow is Yesterday,” which was written and filmed in November 1966 and aired in January ’67, is often cited for having correctly predicted that “the first manned moon shot” would be launched on a Wednesday; Apollo 11 was launched on Wednesday, July 16, 1969.  This is retroactively used to place the events of TiY in July ’69.  However, I think that technically the “first manned moon shot” (the phrase used by the radio broadcast picked up by Uhura in the episode) would be Apollo 8, in which Frank Borman, James Lovell, and William Anders left Earth orbit and circled the Moon for 20 hours before returning to Earth.  The phrase “moon shot” is broad enough to encompass a mission that merely orbits the Moon as well as one that lands on it.  So any reporter talking about Apollo 11 in the summer of 1969 would have remembered the mission from six months earlier, and thus would probably have called it something like “the first attempt to land on the Moon” rather than “the first manned moon shot.”  This would suggest that TiY actually took place in mid-December of 1968.  However, Apollo 8’s December 21 launch date fell on a Saturday, and there’s no evidence that it was ever expected to fall on a Wednesday.  I considered asserting a December ’68 date for the episode herein due to the problems with the “moon shot” phrasing, but finally decided to stick with the favored interpretation, since it has already been used in other tie-in works.
19-20 It always bothered me that a tractor beam, which should be a uniform gravitational pull and thus impart no stress on Capt. Christopher’s jet, somehow tore it apart.  I’m not entirely sure if my explanation works.  But it was easier than justifying Kirk’s decision to beam Christopher aboard and give him a grand tour.
21 To me, TiY’s prediction of a Wednesday moon launch is not nearly as impressive as the fact that it anticipated Frank Tipler’s famous 1973 paper “Rotating cylinders and the possibility of global causality violation” (available at proposing that a path around a dense rotating mass could create a “closed timelike curve” and allow an object to intersect its own past, i.e. travel backward in time.  I have assumed throughout that the “slingshot effect” is based on the principle Tipler proposed.
My explanation for how Spock beamed people into their own past bodies previously appeared in WTC.  If I’d known I’d get the chance to write this book, I might’ve saved the explanation for use here.
22 Since Spock treated time travel as an unprecedented event in “The Naked Time,” it stood to reason that the time-travel events depicted in ENT remained classified.
23 All the temporal incidents described here are my own invention and have not been depicted in any prior work.
24 The term “Feynman curve” comes from the DS9 Millennium novel trilogy by the Reeves-Stevenses.
For more on the Hawking radiation problem, see my notes on the stress-energy tensor from WTC, p. 10.
The rising tensions with the Klingons were established in “Errand of Mercy,” six episodes after TiY in production order (seven in the airdate order which is inexplicably favored by modern home video releases).
25 The name “Centroplex” was used in the novelization of Star Trek: The Motion Picture for the orbital office complex seen in the film.  The novelization was my first exposure to TMP, so I didn’t realize until recently that the term was never officially used anywhere outside the novelization.
26 This scene comes soon after “The City on the Edge of Forever.”  Starbase 12 in the Gamma 400 system was first mentioned in “Space Seed,” four episodes before “City,” so it seemed reasonable to assume it was relatively near the Guardian planet.

Since “City on the Edge” immediately follows “Errand of Mercy” (in production order, what else?), it would come shortly after the Organian peace was imposed, ending the brief UFP-Klingon war.  First contact with the Gorn in “Arena” was nine episodes earlier, probably several months, so relations would still be tentative.  The Tholians were not introduced in TOS until the third season, but they play a major role in the Vanguard series of novels taking place concurrently with TOS.
33 The opinion of Dr. T’Viss (a character introduced in WTC) about the nature of time has some basis in quantum theory.  In principle, the Schroedinger equation of the universe describes all events (including those in all alternate timelines) from beginning to end, and we simply don’t have enough information to compute the whole thing.  As for advanced and retarded waves, these were proposed by John G. Cramer in his transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics, which can be read about in Cramer’s essay “The Quantum Handshake” (originally published in Analog Science Fiction and Fact, November 1986, and available at or in more detail at Cramer’s own site:
Chapter II
34 This scene takes place just before “Assignment: Earth.”  The “historical research mission” therein was just a plot device to set up a backdoor pilot for a spinoff series set in the 1960s, so it raised a lot of questions that were never addressed.
For more on the Cauchy horizon, see WTC notes p. 87.
35 The reference to Scotty’s youth in Aberdeen is based on Simon Pegg’s unofficial backstory for the character.  Scott referred to himself as “an old Aberdeen pub-crawler” in “Wolf in the Fold,” but what portion of his life he spent in Aberdeen was unspecified.
T’Viss is right about the theory: the runaway stress-energy effects that make time travel prohibitive are the same ones that make warp drive prohibitive, so if you can negate one with the right type of exotic matter, you should be able to negate both.  I have no good explanation for why time travel is harder in the Trekverse; it must be due to some quirk of subspace physics unknown to present (or 23rd-century) science.
36 For convenience, I assumed that the Constitution class warp reactor was based on the same principles as the reactor described in the Star Trek: The Next Generation Technical Manual.  This is not an unreasonable assumption given that the NX-01 Enterprise‘s reactor in ENT seemed to be based on the same principles (aside from having the plasma injectors stored over in the port wall, completely unconnected to the actual reactor, for reasons of production convenience), and given the appearance of the reactor in the Doug Drexler cutaway graphic posted at his now-defunct Drex Files blog (reproduced at The Trek Collective here), which was my primary referent for the Enterprise‘s interior layout (see the book’s Acknowledgments, p. 349).
Making the Big E the fastest ship in the fleet was an attempt to rationalize how the ship could have so many adventures crammed into the span of five years (including TOS, TAS, and whatever novels and comics the individual reader may wish to count as “real”).  I considered concocting some sort of time-warp explanation for how, given all the novel and comic stories that have accumulated, the ship could’ve had considerably more than five years’ worth of adventures in the five-year mission, but I decided that would be overly complicated and fannish.
Scott refers to the events of “The Corbomite Maneuver” and “Mudd’s Women.”  The upgrades mentioned here were not established in those episodes, but given how early “The Naked Time” was, there really weren’t any other incidents I could cite where upgrades would’ve been needed or available.
37 The two alternate-timeline incidents referenced here are from “Mirror, Mirror” and “Miri.”  The alternate Earth in “Miri” was never explained in the episode, and for years I was satisfied to pretend it never happened; it was not an episode I ever expected to reference in my writing.  But once I decided I wanted to do an alternate-timeline story in FH — ideally one growing out of TOS, yet not about the Mirror Universe — I remembered an old speculation of mine that maybe Miri’s Earth had somehow crossed over from a parallel timeline.  The question of how such a timeline would have developed without humanity was intriguing enough to justify acknowledging one of my least favorite episodes.  I combined this with the “subspace confluence” idea I’d coined for an unsold VGR episode pitch.  (And yes, in my outline I did nickname this alternate reality “the Miri-ad Universe.”)
38 It never made sense to me that the Onlies still acted like children in “Miri.” Even if their bodies and brains hadn’t matured, it stands to reason that 300-year-old beings would’ve accumulated a wealth of life experience that would give them some measure of maturity, discipline, and wisdom.  So here I chose to interpret their behavior more as “feral” than “juvenile.”  It also stood to reason that most of them would have died out by the time we met them, given that they never seem to have organized a stable civilization.  (Though come to think of it, maybe they had some semblance of one until relatively recently, since there’s no way the ruins of that city would’ve stood for 300 years without maintenance.)
None of the images of Onlies’ Earth seen in either the original or remastered edition of “Miri” give any indication of a moon.
39 In WTC, it is confirmed that timelines can reconverge; see the novel and its annotations for discussion.  At this point in history, however, that had yet to be verified.  Naturally, Spock sees what others overlook, because he’s Spock.
The gangway along the “cathedral” pipes is conjectural, but something must have been behind the doorway at the back of the upper-level walkway in the engineering set.
40-41 The energizer monitor room is supposed to be the TAS location seen in the second row of the image at  The “dome-shaped hatch” mentioned on p. 41 is the one on the far right of the image.
42 My description of the warp reactor is a combination of the horizontal intermix shaft from the Drexler cutaway (see p. 36 note) and the “antimatter nacelle” interior from TAS: “One of Our Planets is Missing,” seen in the bottom row of the image linked in the previous note.  Storing antimatter in a nacelle doesn’t fit with our modern understanding of how warp drive works, and the word “nacelle” was only used once in the episode, so I choose to disregard it and assume that the scene actually took place in the reactor chamber as shown here.
The “maintenance crawlways” Scott references would include the one seen in “That Which Survives,” wherein Scotty seemed to be working directly on the warp reactor itself.
The last known Vulcan survey of Earth before the 1960s was the 1957 survey depicted in ENT: “Carbon Creek.”
43 Bonnie Prince Charlie is a hero from Scottish history, and Scott actually joins his rebellion in the time-travel novel Home is the Hunter by Dana Kramer-Rolls (set in the post-TMP era, so it would come after this novel).  Isambard Kingdom Brunel was a great engineer of the Victorian era, and I’m aware of him mainly through the delightful alternate-history webcomic 2D Goggles.
45-6 Here I’m mimicking the time-travel sequence from The Voyage Home, where audio clips from upcoming scenes of the film were played in reverse order over a surreal computer-generated sequence.  These quotes all come from “Assignment: Earth” and are also in reverse order.  Since TVH was the only time we’ve seen a reverse slingshot in progress, it seemed reasonable to use it as a model, although it was a bit of a stretch to rationalize the effect.
47 I used the Celestia space simulator to estimate how far the Solar System moved through space between the dates of “Assignment: Earth” and “Tomorrow is Yesterday,” by fixing the POV relative to a more distant star so it wouldn’t travel with Sol as I changed the date.
The April 4 date for the episode is based on the suggestion of Memory Alpha that the “important assassination” cited by Spock as occurring on that date was that of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., which occurred only six days after “Assignment: Earth” aired — and on the same day that a Saturn V rocket was launched and veered off course, broadly resembling the events of the episode.
Lt. Watley was a character from DS9: “Trials and Tribble-ations,” played by Dierdre Imershein.  In giving the character the same first name as the actress, I’m apparently following the precedent of the Starship Creator game (though really I just went with what Memory Beta used).   While I was writing this book, I learned that the novel A Choice of Catastrophes by Michael Schuster and Steve Mollmann also briefly mentioned Lt. Watley (by last name only), but portrayed her as the ship’s historian.  Since I didn’t want to abandon my plans for the character as a temporal physicist — and since both the Enterprise historians we’ve seen, Marla McGivers in “Space Seed” and Erikson in “Yesteryear,” wore red instead of the blue sported by Watley (see pp. 72-3) — I chose to suggest that the Watley glimpsed in Mike & Steve’s novel was actually the sister of the “Tribble-ations” character.  (Why include Watley at all?  One, because I wanted a female science officer character and she was just about the only canonical one available; two, because she was from a time travel-themed episode, the same one that introduced Lucsly & Dulmur, so it seemed appropriate; and three, because she was hot.)
48-50 This scene leads directly into, and overlaps, the teaser of “Assignment: Earth.”  It took some doing to explain what Spock was doing in the transporter room in the first place, and why the transporter locked onto Gary Seven’s beam.
Chapter III
55 In past works I’ve referred to members of Lt. Arex’s species as Edoans, the term used in Alan Dean Foster’s Star Trek Logs, but here I finally gave in and began using the form “Edosian” which was used canonically in reference to various plants and animals that were implicitly meant to be from Arex’s world.  (I’m aware that other texts have employed a different name for Arex’s species, but the literature nonetheless assumes that race exists alongside Edoans/Edosians and is presumably a close relative.  My preference is to stick with the original or onscreen nomenclature.)
56 I’m following the assumptions about presidential succession established in the appendix to Articles of the Federation by Keith R. A. DeCandido, though both Presidents Wescott and McLaren originated in other texts.
57 As stated in the Acknowledgments, Meijan Grey is based on the historian Grey briefly glimpsed in TAS: “Yesteryear” and voiced by Majel Barrett.  Alan Dean Foster dubbed her Jan Grey, but her character design suggested a mix of Asian and African ancestry to me.
As far as I know, “chronal” is not a real word.
59 Arthur Manners is named for a pair of characters (one of whom was a kangaroo) in Murray Leinster’s time travel-related story “The Fourth-Dimensional Demonstrator,” which can be read for free at the Baen Ebooks library.
Qasr administration: A nod to Alan Dean Foster’s Star Trek Log Seven, which asserted that Samuel Solomon Qasr was the Federation president on the date of the Enterprise‘s launch and christening.
60 This scene takes place shortly after “All Our Yesterdays.”  That episode implied that Starfleet had at least some prior knowledge of Sarpeidon.

For years, I struggled with how to make sense of “The Omega Glory” and its depiction of duplicates of the United States of America and the People’s Republic of China forming thousands of years in the past.  I went from concocting elaborate rationalizations involving WWIII refugees in DY-class sleeper ships falling through a temporal wormhole to simply rewriting the last couple of acts of the episode in my mind so that they happened without the American paraphernalia.  But fairly recently, I realized the things that are pointed out in Grey’s thoughts here: it was never actually stated in the episode that the American artifacts were ancient, and their condition was far too good for them to be more than a few decades old, maybe a century or so if you really pushed it.  And that, in combination with what I learned back in history class about how easily local religions can assimilate external ideas and identify them with aspects of their existing beliefs, allowed for the far simpler explanation provided here.  The ECS Philadelphia is my own creation, paralleling the intervention of the Horizon into Iotian culture in “A Piece of the Action.”

In theory, scans through the Guardian should have enabled the Federation to gain detailed information about events from throughout history, including some rather worldshaking stuff, not to mention lots of secret information.  (See WTC Ch. XIII, particularly pp. 299-300, for a discussion of how a time viewer can render secrets and privacy moot.)  Yet we have seen stories set in the 24th century where some things from the past remained unknown or secret, so it seemed there must be some reason why the Guardian’s information wasn’t that easy to decipher.  Given the sheer quantity of it and the speed at which it was presented, it seemed logical that it would be tricky to sift through.  (If you think about it, if you did have a complete record of the entire history of the world, say, 10,000 years’ worth, it would probably take far more than 10,000 years for human historians to do a complete review of the entire record.  Computers could catalog it far faster, but human observers could only call up fractions of it at a time, and could only find something if they knew what to look for or if they were led there by its connections to something else.)  I establish later that scans of the Guardian are restricted after “Yesteryear,” further limiting the amount of information that would have been obtained via the Guardian.
67 Galos Sigma was one of the ancient civilizations mentioned by Picard’s students in Chapter 5 of The Lost Era: Buried Age.
The Orion history presented here is original to this book, devised to justify how the “dawn of Orion” visited in TAS: “Yesteryear” could be a completely lost civilization.
68 If history were changed, even if the changes were cancelled out, wouldn’t it still split off an alternate timeline?  In principle, yes, but the characters at this point in history still haven’t sorted out the details of temporal theory.  Although as it turns out, they’re basically right, per the model I devised in WTC.  In that model, two separate timelines can reconverge if the differences between them are trivial and have no lasting impact.
69 This section takes place before, during, and after the events of “Yesteryear.”  The opening lines of the scene are from Kirk’s log entry at the start of the episode.
What’s the difference between an archaeologist and a historian?  The former studies the past through its physical artifacts and remains, while the latter studies the past through its writings and documents.  And yes, I’m fudging a bit by making Grey an archaeologist when Kirk’s words onscreen identify her as a historian.  But it suited my needs for the character, in part because of the aforementioned distinction.
70 The second encounter with Gary Seven is depicted in Assignment: Eternity by Greg Cox, and the Clan Ru incident (previously alluded to in WTC) is from First Frontier by Diane Carey & Dr. James I. Kirkland.
72 Aleek-Om and Erikson’s first names come from the Foster novelization of “Yesteryear.”  Erikson appears to have replaced Elaine Watley (see p. 47 notes) as the ship’s historian.
73 “Yesteryear” never explained what the heck McCoy was doing down on the planet anyway, particularly since it did establish that he was busy with crew physicals.
74 The changes in the geology are a reference to the different depictions of the area around the Guardian in “City on the Edge” and “Yesteryear.”  Normally I wouldn’t have felt the need to take the differences in artistic interpretation so literally, but it made sense that the Guardian’s spatiotemporal turbulence would create geological turbulence as well.
Tabit is the traditional name for Pi3 Orionis, identified by Star Trek Star Charts as the Orion home system.

Green Orions are well-known, but the Orions seen in TAS: “The Pirates of Orion” had blue skin (and it’s possible that Thelev, an Orion spy disguised as an Andorian, could have had naturally blue skin).  The idea of gold-skinned Orions was put in my head decades ago by Bjo Trimble’s Star Trek Concordance, whose lexicon entry for “Orion colonies” (p. 203 in the 1976 Ballantine edition, p. 295 in the incomprehensibly indexed 1995 Citadel Press edition) mentions “the golden-skinned interpreter of the laws, Devna” from “The Time Trap.”  I now know that Devna was actually a pale green (though perhaps pale enough to be mistaken for gold if seen on an early color television?), but the idea of gold Orions is hard to get out of my head after so long.  A couple of unofficial sources, such as the FASA role-playing games and The Worlds of the Federation by Shane Johnson, have posited gold or yellow-skinned Orions (though the latter work said that only the men were yellow and the women green).  I was hesitant to mention these hypothetical gold Orions herein, but given that Kirk, Spock, and Erikson went into the past without any form of disguise, I figured it would make the most sense if Dawn-era Orions were diverse enough to let them blend in.
The inconsistency between “City on the Edge,” where the Guardian claimed it could only present history on fast-forward, and “Yesteryear,” where exact dates and places could be dialed in, troubled me for many years, until I realized I was thinking more in terms of the Foster adaptation’s depiction.  On studying the actual episode, I saw that the “fast-forward” presentation of history was still present to an extent, and the date was not specified as precisely as in Foster’s version.
“And remember not to step on any butterflies”: My second allusion to Ray Bradbury’s “A Sound of Thunder” in as many DTI novels.  See WTC notes p. 277.
77 I’m not convinced that McCoy would so easily walk away when unsure if his friends were safe.  But the episode required that he be back on the ship once the travelers returned.  Perhaps he realizes there’s nothing he can contribute down on the planet and is trying to distract himself with busywork.
The episode never made it clear how Kirk got back to his own timeline once Spock restored it.  Did the Guardian instruct him to step through and come out on the other “side?”  I finally settled on more of a quantum convergence sort of thingy as seen here.
78 Enterprise, this is the Captain.  Two to beam up.”: Other than the log entry excerpt above, this is the only line spoken in “Yesteryear” that’s directly depicted herein.  A few of the Guardian’s lines in this sequence are exact quotes of lines from the episode, but occur in different contexts.  And both the passages I did quote are seen from different perspectives.  As a rule I prefer to work around and complement existing material rather than retelling it.
80 In “Yesteryear,” when Thelin tells Spock “Live long and prosper in your world,” Spock replies “And you in yours,” implying that he believes Thelin’s timeline will continue to exist.  Its continued existence is confirmed by the Myriad Universes novel The Chimes at Midnight by Geoff Trowbridge, depicting how the events of the second through sixth ST movies unfolded in Thelin’s reality.
Chapter IV
82 This chapter takes place between TAS and the end of the 5-year mission.
83 “Assignment: Earth” was actually unclear whether the “light-speed breakaway effect” was meant to refer to the slingshot maneuver from “Tomorrow is Yesterday” or the mechanism used in “The Naked Time.”  It served my purposes to go with the usual assumption that it’s the slingshot.
85 For more on unitarity, see WTC notes p. 45-6.

McCoy is, of course, unaware that the bum called Rodent stole his hand phaser and subsequently disintegrated himself (and the phaser) in a totally pointless scene which is probably the one serious flaw in “City on the Edge.”  It raises the question of why history was unaltered by the bum’s disappearance.  One could argue that he had no obvious importance, but the laws of physics don’t care about how humans perceive history; Rodent still affected the world around him through his movements, respiration, etc.  By not crossing the street at a certain moment, he could’ve prevented someone from being delayed and accidentally meeting their future mate with whom they’d give birth to the ancestor of Zefram Cochrane or somebody.  Or he could’ve been the carrier of a disease that spread to someone else across town, killed them, and prevented them from giving birth to a great dictator.  Perhaps the point of the scene is to suggest that only some people are important nexus points in history, but if so, it failed to justify the premise and just feels gratuitous and callous.
90 I’m introducing a bit of a retcon here.  In WTC, I went with the statement in Last Unicorn Games’ All Our Yesterdays: The Time Travel Sourcebook that the DTI was a division of the Federation Science Council.  But here, as I investigated the organization of the Federation Council, I realized that the FSC would be a subset of the FC, the equivalent of a standing congressional committee in the US government.  Thus it would be responsible for legislation concerning science, rather than actual research as I’d assumed.  So I had to retcon the Institutes of the Federation Science Council into existence as a set of federally operated research institutions, analogous to bodies like NOAA or the US Geological Survey.  In essence, when you see “Federation Science Council” in WTC, you should assume it’s shorthand for “Institutes of the FSC.”
91 Having Tellarites involved in Mars’s colonial history may be a chronology error, since humans first contacted Tellarites in the 2150s and Mars appears to have been an independent world by then, at least in the Romulan War novels by Michael A. Martin.  So the usage of the word “colonial” here may be inaccurate and refer instead to the period of settlement and expansion across the uninhabited portions of independent Mars in the late 22nd and early 23rd centuries, say.
The post-Zoran purges are a reference to an event described in Ch. 7 of Unspoken Truth by Margaret Wander Bonanno, specifically on pp. 129-134 — a violent backlash against science in the wake of the abusive experiments of Zora, a representation of whom appeared as a member of the “evil” faction in “The Savage Curtain.”
Ithenites are a race mentioned by name in ENT, and were intended by that show’s producers to be the species of the small copper-skinned ambassadors seen in “Journey to Babel.”  The name “Danga Sitru” is derived from “Orodanga,” an earlier conjectural name for that species, and a reversal of the surname of Billy Curtis, who played one of the ambassadors.  I have assumed that Makus III (the destination of the medical supplies in “The Galileo Seven”) is the homeworld of the tall, dark-skinned, robed and hooded ambassadors seen in the same episode.  (See Ch. IX, pp. 199-200.)
92 Betelgeusians and Saurians appeared in TMP.  See my Ex Machina Annotations.
Icorians are described as a species with dusky purple-gray skin in SCE: Troubleshooting by Robert Greenberger.  I assume they’re the same species as the purple humanoids seen in “Journey to Babel” and The Undiscovered Country.  Those background players had much brighter purple skin, but the Icorians could have multiple ethnic groups.
99 “Real now” is a bit of the “space hippie” slang from “The Way to Eden.”
The young Rhaandarite is, of course, Laarin Andos, the future DTI director.
100 Nogura’s classified whereabouts in the years prior to this scene include his tenure as commander of Starbase 47 in VNG, which concluded nearly two years before this scene.
Chapter V
101 The Pelosian mission was first established in VGR: “Q2,” and I described its specifics and conseqences in Ch. 2 of Ex Machina (see annotations).  This chapter is an expansion of those events.  To be honest, it’s something of a self-indulgence, since it has little to do with the time-travel themes of the novel, but it’s a story I’ve wanted to explore in more detail.  I approached this sequence as though writing excerpts from a “lost” TOS episode.
102 The suggestion that a “five-year mission” is merely the typical recommended maximum between refits rather than a rigid standard was first suggested in ExM.  I resist the tendency of many fans (and authors) to assume that five-year missions are some kind of universal law for all Constitution-class ships.  Canonically, we only have evidence of one 5YM for one ship — and in fact, the only evidence for that within TOS itself is in the opening narration.  The only actual in-story confirmation comes from TMP (“my five years out there”) and “Q2” (“Kirk completed his historic five-year mission”).  A single example is not evidence of a pattern, so there’s no basis whatsoever for assuming that 5-year tours are in any way routine.  After all, it’s logical that ships could have various different mission profiles of different durations.  For instance, I prefer to think that the voyage to the edge of the galaxy in “Where No Man Has Gone Before” — a mission whose duration would logically have been several months for travel time — was a distinct mission Kirk was sent on before the 5-year general survey/patrol tour depicted in TOS proper.  (After all, the ship was refitted between the pilot and the series, something more likely to occur between missions than in the middle of one.)  However, the novels have established that the Enterprise was sent on a second 5YM following TMP, so I’ve needed to stay consistent with that.  So I’ve chosen, in ExM and here, to establish that 5-year tours are a baseline for Constitution-class ships but not an absolute rule — they’re the typical maximum tour duration, but ships could be assigned to shorter mission profiles depending on need, or, as suggested here, have a tour extended if the maintenance clock was reset mid-tour.
103 The Skagway mission was depicted in The Rings of Time by Greg Cox.  Greg was kind enough to let me see the manuscript of his novel in time for me to incorporate a nod to it and make sure his references to the DTI were consistent with FH.
111 I don’t think I came up with a very good explanation for why they have a communicator.  Sorry.
115 Paresthesia is the technical term for a tingling or “pins-and-needles” sensation.

William Smillie is seen years later in The Undiscovered Country as the commander-in-chief of Starfleet (played by Leon Russom).  His surname comes from J. M. Dillard’s novelization of the film.  I probably did not intend Commodore T’Vran to be the same character as the Captain T’Vran who appears in ENT: The Romulan War: Beneath the Raptor’s Wing, since she would have had to be promoted only once in 115 years (though that’s not out of the question; compare Tuvok’s career history as per VGR: “Flashback”).  More likely she’s a namesake, perhaps a descendant.
120 Lori Ciana was established as Nogura’s aide in Gene Roddenberry’s TMP novelization and was referenced in ExM.
Nogura’s fondness for jasmine tea is an in-joke.  The authors of the Vanguard series wrote the character with the late actor Mako as their mental model.  Mako’s final role was the voice of General Iroh in Avatar: The Last Airbender, and Iroh was a great connoisseur of tea, particularly jasmine.
The VNG novels also established that Nogura used profanity only sparingly, but by the time I discovered that, I’d already written this scene and preferred to keep his use of profanity for effect.
122 Harold Michelson was the production designer of TMP; Joseph R. Jennings was its art director and had been a co-designer of the earlier Enterprise redesign from the abortive Phase II TV revival along with Matt Jefferies and Mike Minor.
Chapter VI
124 Glynnis, his lass back home: I believe this is the first novel-continuity nod to “Retrospect” by Peter David, Annual #3 (1988) from DC Comics’s Star Trek Volume 1.
Willard Decker’s prior service aboard the Boston is based on Harold Livingston’s first-draft script to “In Thy Image,” the Phase II pilot that was reworked into TMP.  The timing is based on a reference from The Brave and the Bold Book 1 by Keith R.A. DeCandido establishing that Decker was not yet a first officer as of 2266.
125 “The Enterprise didn’t have the same bridge module, warp nacelles, deflector assembly, computer core, or hangar doors…”: Aside from the computer core, these are all references to the features that were altered on the Enterprise shooting miniature between the second pilot (where Scott first appeared) and the regular series.  The StarTrek History site has an excellent page on the shooting miniatures at
Doctor Swansea is named for Zuzana Swansea, the artist who designed the “Aztec” hull plating texture for the TMP Enterprise miniature.  Her greater claim to fame, though, came as a child in 1968 when she escaped the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia that ended the Prague Spring protests, bringing with her a series of photographs which became part of the official historical record of the event and are featured in the motion picture The Unbearable Lightness of Being.
126 Although the Starfleet Museum has been established before, I had recently visited the Smithsonian’s National Air and Space Museum when I wrote this book, and it seemed logical to me that the venerable institution would still exist and have its own orbital facility.  This is also an homage to the fact that the original Enterprise miniature has been on display in the NASM since the ’70s, though these days you have to go to the back of the lower level of the gift shop to find it.
127 Hadley (Bill Blackburn) was a recurring background player in TOS and was present in the engineering scenes of “The Naked Time.”  Gabler will be discussed below.
128-9 The refit configuration Scott is contemplating here is based on the Phase II redesign by Jefferies, Jennings, and Minor.  When Phase II was abandoned in favor of TMP, Andrew Probert was brought in by production designer Harold Michelson to redesign the ship for the big screen, with contributions from Michelson, Richard Taylor, and Douglas Trumbull.  “Commodore Probert” was referenced in voiceover comm chatter in TMP, making him a canonical character, though assigning him to the SCE is my own extrapolation.
131 McCoy reconnecting with his daughter Joanna after the 5-year mission was established in The Better Man by Howard Weinstein, while his expedition to study Fabrini medicine was established in ExM.
133 The destruction of the Zheng He was also alluded to in ExM; see ExM notes p. 13.  Mestiko is the featured planet in the Mere Anarchy miniseries.
134 In WTC I named Warlock Station as an homage to the steed of the title character in Filmation’s animated series Blackstar (see WTC notes p. 87ff).  The plot of sh’Lesinas’s fantasy novel referenced here is basically the premise of Blackstar.
136-7 Again I’m using the TNG Technical Manual as my reference for warp core construction, and the use of hafnium in the reactor chamber comes from there.  Taranium is an in-joke, a nod to the substance that powered the Daleks’ Time Destructor in the epic (and mostly lost) Doctor Who serial “The Daleks’ Master Plan.”  I had originally hoped to use an existing element name from Trek, but none of the available candidates seemed appropriate.  However, since taranium is stated to be a provisional name, it’s possible it didn’t stick.

It was tricky to come up with a coherent etymology for the fictitious term “chroniton.”  The proper construction for the name of a time quantum would be “chronon,” but that term is already in use to refer to the smallest possible interval of time in a quantum system.  The Greek root for time is khronos, and the suffix for a subatomic particle is simply -on, derived from “ion.”  If it had been “chronicon,” that would make sense, since khronikos means “of/pertaining to time.”  But there’s no inflection or declension of khronos that has an “it” in it as far as I can tell.  And there’s no Greek “it” that means anything useful.  So I had to settle for blending languages and bringing in Latin ire, “to go,” whose third person singular (“He/she/it goes”) is simply it.
139 Although this takes place after TAS, I have gone with the TOS configuration of main engineering rather than the one in TAS (see the illustation linked on p. 40-41 note above) which placed the master systems board on the aft wall next to the “cathedral” grille.  It was easier for me to visualize the set in three dimensions that way.  Perhaps they put things back the way they had been after TAS.
DeSalle (Michael Barrier) was a recurring character in the first two seasons of TOS, and his first name Vincent comes from The Star Trek Concordance and is also used in A Choice of Catastrophes by Steve Mollmann and Michael Schuster.  The middle initial M. is an attempt to reconcile with Mirror Universe: The Sorrows of Empire by David Mack, which calls his alternate-universe counterpart Michael DeSalle.  Perhaps the Mirror version chose to go by his middle name for some reason.
Gabler is an assistant engineer seen in several TAS episodes.  Both the original and revised Concordance credit James Doohan as his portrayer, but I don’t think that’s accurate; many of the attributions to Doohan in the revised edition are simply incorrect.  Gabler was given the first name Frank in Foster’s ST Logs.
140 Gabler’s one trip through time was probably in The Rings of Time, though he did not appear in that book.
142 The use of “downstream” to represent the future is from Manifold: Time by Steven Baxter, one of the books I read while researching WTC.  Watley is basically speaking for me here, explaining why I chose to go with the Asimovian usage instead.
143 Watley’s “thing for doctors” was strongly in evidence when she flirted with Bashir in “Trials and Tribble-ations.”
The Class-B jumpsuit is seen on the right at
The “cross-training” of these bit players is a reference to how they showed up in various different jobs as the scripts required.
144 Gliese 229 is a red dwarf with a brown dwarf companion, located 18.8 light-years away in the constellation Lepus.  It’s 9.8 ly from 40 Eridani, Vulcan’s home star.
147 The force-field belts were used in lieu of spacesuits in TAS because they were easier to draw (and didn’t obscure the characters’ appearance so they remained recognizable in long shots), but they were never seen again afterward, and they never really seemed like a good idea to me in the first place, for the reasons discussed on this page.
151 The mechanism behind the disappearance of the alternate ship and crew (discussed by Garcia and Ranjea on pp. 159-160) is the same one depicted for the equivalent event in WTC Ch. IV.
Chapter VII
154 The Split Infinite affair is from Part 1 of TNG: Indistinguishable from Magic by David A. McIntee.  The frame of FH takes place between Parts 1 and 2 of that novel.
155 President Lorg is the same person as the Councillor Lorg seen in Ch. IV.
159 The isolation suits were introduced in Star Trek: Insurrection.  The suits’ biosign-masking ability was established in DS9: Mission Gamma: Lesser Evil by Robert Simpson.
164 Interphase psychosis was first seen in “The Tholian Web.”
165 My description of the confluence drive is loosely inspired by a piece of artwork I found at, and by the core of a mangosteen, a type of fruit found in Indonesia.
166 Okay, if things that can absorb neutrinos are so rare, how the heck can tricorders detect neutrinos?  There’s never been a good explanation for how Starfleet tech is able to detect neutrinos without a huge pool of water, but it’s an established fact of the universe.
Chapter VIII
173 This portion of the novel takes place nearly nine months after TMP, seven months after the end of Ex Machina, and over four months after Mere Anarchy: The Darkness Drops Again (TDDA).
Monique Ledoux was previously seen in TDDA.
174 Spock’s leave of absence to rescue and mentor Saavik was first posited in The Pandora Principle by Carolyn Clowes and also referenced in Unspoken Truth by Margaret Wander Bonanno, though the two works disagree on some of the details.  My interpretation here is based principally on Bonanno’s.

The descriptions of the consoles and controls are based on the Enterprise Flight Manual by Lee Cole, a document created to instruct the Phase II cast in the operation of their stations.  The fine-tuning rod for the life-forms sensor was meant to be a Theremin-like instrument that the actor would “play” by moving one’s hands near it to make “electronic humming sound effects.”  It was never actually used onscreen, and probably never built.  Since sound effects are normally dubbed into a scene in post-production, having a sound-effect generator in use on set would have been rather redundant.
180 Most of the background presented herein for the Vedala comes from Alan Dean Foster’s adaptation of TAS: “The Jihad.”  The episode only states that they are “the oldest spacefaring race we know.”
183 It was never made clear what the attitude indicator-like dome at the center of the TMP bridge was for.  It couldn’t be what it looked like, since there’s no up and down in space.  I was unable to find any specifics in my research, but the Enteprise Flight Manual did state that the attitude displays on the helm console showed the ship’s orientation “according to its gyroscope which is set for a particular planet.”
The nurse Lt. Liftig first appeared in The Better Man by Howard Weinstein.
190 A soliton is a self-sustaining wave or distortion, such as Jupiter’s Great Red Spot, a light pulse in a fiber optic cable, or a wave traveling through a canal.  Normally they require some external constraint to keep their energy from dissipating, but occasionally a soliton can be constrained by its own structure (I think).
193 Jonathan Archer’s key role in recovering Surak’s teachings and thwarting Administrator V’Las’s attempt to foment war were seen in ENT: “The Forge,” “Awakening,” and “Kir’Shara.”  Kirk’s unfamiliarity with Surak was seen in “The Savage Curtain” and is difficult to justify in retrospect.
Chapter IX
195 The Suurok-class vessel — misspelled “Surak-class” by some references — first appeared in ENT: “Breaking the Ice.”
The Capella-class survey vessel was created by Masao Okazaki at his Starfleet Museum site: It seemed appropriate for the type of medium-sized, pre-2270s-vintage starship I had in mind.
196 Kol-Ut-Shan as the Vulcan term for their IDIC motto was introduced in VGR: “Gravity.”

The planet Hellguard and the fundamentals of Saavik’s origins there were introduced by Vonda N. McIntyre in her novelization of The Wrath of Khan (TWOK)  Although it is not canonical, McIntyre’s Hellguard backstory has been consistently followed by prose and comics tales involving Saavik, although some of them disagree with one another on timing and other specifics.  Margaret Wander Bonanno’s Unspoken Truth, which I have followed here, reconciled The Pandora Principle‘s assertion that Spock took a yearlong leave to civilize the feral Saavik with other versions’ assertion that Saavik was raised principally by Sarek and Amanda.  I had initially hoped to have Spock temporarily leave Saavik in Sarek and Amanda’s care before boarding the Hypatia, so that the scene portrayed on pp. 9-11 of Unspoken Truth would occur just before this chapter, but I realized the travel time didn’t work out, as stated in the text.  Saavik’s first trip to Vulcan would have to wait until later, which is no doubt closer to what Margaret intended.
199 Since the novel Vulcan’s Heart by Josepha Sherman and Susan Shwartz shows Spock marrying Saavik some 55 years after this portion of the novel, I felt it worthwhile to clarify that their relationship would not be perceived as a father-daughter or sibling relationship by Vulcan standards — even though Unspoken Truth does portray Saavik as the adopted child of Sarek and Amanda.
The term t’hy’la for “friend, brother, lover” was coined by Gene Roddenberry in his TMP novelization.  T’kam’la is my own coinage derived from that and the -kam suffix by which Spock addressed Saavik in TWOK (“Saavikam,” sometimes rendered “Saavik-kam” in certain tie-ins, analogous to Japanese name affixes like –san or -kun).
Recall that a Makusian Federation councillor was seen on p. 91.
204 “Miri” established that Spock was immune to the plague but was a carrier, unable to return to the ship.
The films The Undiscovered Country and Generations, as well as the 2009 alternate-reality Star Trek film, did show the effects of supernovae and planetary explosions propagating faster than light, with GEN in particular showing gravitational effects as instantaneous.  However, real physics says that gravitational changes only propagate at lightspeed, so I assume the effects seen in those films were somehow propagated through subspace.  Although the confluence is a subspace phenomenon, it suited my purposes to assume it had no FTL gravitational effects.

Here I followed the precedent of Star Trek Star Charts in identifying Axanar with Epsilon Eridani.  In retrospect, though, I wish I hadn’t.  STSC’s assignments of star systems seen in ENT’s first season are based on the mistaken assumption that Enterprise returned to Earth after “Broken Bow,” when in fact it proceeded further outward from the Klingon homeworld.  Although I suppose it’s possible that the Axanar met by Enterprise were very far from their home.  And ENT’s portrayal of distances was not very consistent, since despite traveling outward from Qo’noS, they nonetheless found themselves visiting worlds near Vulcan and Andorian space, and ENT: “Home” in season 4 established that Vulcan is only 16 light-years from Earth (all but confirming the identification of Vulcan with 40 Eridani as originally proposed by James Blish in his adaptation of “Tomorrow is Yesterday”).
207 For more of my thoughts on Hypatia, see my review of the film Agora at
Subcommander Muroc was a character from ENT: “Cease Fire.”  T’Pring is describing a version of that episode’s events which turned out far more badly in the absence of Jonathan Archer’s intervention.
Although we did not see Romulans with pronounced foreheads in the 23rd century, most of the Romulans we saw (save for high-ranking ones like commanders, subcommanders, and ambassadors) were helmeted and could theoretically have had TNG-style brow ridges under their helmets.  This is more likely than the notion that the entire race was somehow persuaded to undergo genetic engineering in the intervening decades (or that if they did embrace genetic enhancement, they would all be changed in the same way rather than exploring multiple possible modifications).
208 As we discovered in ENT: “Kir’Shara,” V’Las’s attempts to trick Vulcan into going to war and to destroy the peaceful Syrannite movement were part of a Romulan plan to infiltrate Vulcan.

Shantherin th’Clane previously appeared in ExM and is one iteration of a recurring in-joke paying homage to a prominent Trek fan with a great fondness for Andorians, who goes by the “Andorian name” of Therin.  Pasthemon sh’Levram is loosely inspired by Themon, an Andorian who appeared in issue 16 of Marvel’s Star Trek comic in 1981.  Sh’Levram’s appearance here is not intended as an endorsement of the “reality” of that issue, whose story involved magic alien gnomes.
212 As stated in the Acknowledgments, the name Barak for Mark Lenard’s Klingon commander from TMP comes from the original pilot script “In Thy Image.”  “Son of Krase” is an acknowlegment of an alternate name proposed for the character by a collectible card game, which called him Krase, an anagram of “Sarek.”
213 Captain Tunzos appeared in “Double Bluff,” the fourth storyline in the Los Angeles Times Syndicate’s daily Star Trek comic strip, published in May-June 1980.  In the Sunday, June 16 strip, Captain Tunzos just randomly orders, “Get me some meat!” in the middle of a tense standoff with the Enterprise.  That cracked me up, and I couldn’t resist homaging it here.
214 Orion “slave” women’s true power was revealed in ENT: “Bound.”
The “War of Kentin” is, of course, a nod to Thomas Warkentin, author of the LA Times comic strip and creator of Tunzos.
Kautilya was the author of the Artha Shastra, often considered the Indian equivalent of Macchiavelli’s The Prince.
215 The park is another bit of the extended Therin in-joke.  Therin Park was introduced in Worlds of Deep Space Nine: Andor: Paradigm by Heather Jarman, and Dayton Ward’s Typhon Pact: Paths of Disharmony established that it had been named for Shantherin th’Clane.  Here I suggest that the future Therin Park was named that because it had been a favorite of his.
Chapter X
225 Kirk’s fondness for the words “Let me help” was established in “The City on the Edge of Forever.”
226 My description of the officers’ lounge is based on the miniature version of the set seen during Spock’s arrival sequence in TMP (where his shuttle is seen through the lounge windows as it approaches and then undocks).  The set was never built fullscale due to budget, and the set that was used instead is interpreted here and in ExM as a separate, private area (see ExM notes p. 134).
227 My description of a Klingon spacedock is inspired by a Dave Morton illustration which appeared as the July image in the Star Trek Ships of the Line 2011 Calendar.
228 The presence of a beverage dispenser in the lounge area was proposed by Shane Johnson in Mr. Scott’s Guide to the Enterprise (Pocket, 1987), p. 48-51.
229 Duane’s acclaimed monograph on Vulcan history: A nod to Spock’s World by Diane Duane, alternating chapters of which presented an overview of Vulcan prehistory and history.
230 The armillary sphere was seen in Kirk’s quarters in The Wrath of Khan.  My description of his quarters here includes a blend of its furnishings in TMP and TWOK.
232 Although ENT never explicitly tied its concept of Vulcan neuropressure (featured through much of its third season) to the Vulcan nerve pinch, it stands to reason that they would be related techniques, and I suspect that was the intention of the show’s creators, though as far as I know they’ve never confirmed that.
235 The breakout sequence is intended as an homage to Mission: Impossible (the TV series, not the movies), which was the sister series to Star Trek (produced by the same studio on adjacent stages).  Originally I attributed the plan to newly invented characters whose names were allusions to M:I characters, but I soon decided it would work better as a showcase for some of the minor established TMP crewmembers.
236 swirl chamber: see ExM notes p. 37.  The colder plasma streams are my own extrapolation from the more gradual form of mixing; since the particles and antiparticles have more opportunities to interact and annihilate, they don’t have to be slammed together quite so forcefully.
I wanted to call the work bees “adorable” rather than “stalwart,” but my editor wouldn’t go for it.
237 For more on Regulus in the Trek universe (and in reality), see WTC notes p. 12.
238 Regulus Ab is something I didn’t cover in WTC.  It’s a small white dwarf believed to exist in close orbit of Regulus A, only about 0.35 AU away.  The lower-case “b” notation refers to the first discovered small body (such as an exoplanet) in orbit of a star.  This is distinct from Regulus B, a main-sequence red dwarf roughly 100 AU away.  For more, see
239 mini-nova:  The term “nova” (as distinct from “supernova”) has come to refer to a periodic fusion eruption on the surface of a white dwarf or neutron star in a binary system — exactly the phenomenon depicted in TNG: “Evolution.”  This is an artificially triggered, smaller-scale version of the same phenomenon.

ENT: “The Catwalk” revealed that Vulcan’s first ambassador to Earth was Solkar, in turn referencing Sarek’s line in The Search for Spock introducing himself as “Child of Skon, child of Solkar.”  In other words, Skon was Solkar’s son, Sarek was Skon’s son, and Spock was Sarek’s son (say that five times fast).  Dialogue in ENT: “Horizon” identifies the Vulcan seen in the finale of Star Trek: First Contact as “the Vulcan ambassador,” suggesting this was Solkar.  The post-finale ENT novels have established that Solkar was still active in the 2150s and ’60s and was present at the signing of the Federation charter.
242 bijective map: See the Wikipedia link on homeomorphism in the p. 6-7 note above.
244 The term “ansible” for instantaneous FTL communication was coined by SF author Ursula K. LeGuin.  It is often used to refer to quantum entanglement-based communication in SF, and was featured in DS9: Time’s Enemy by L.A. Graf.
Chapter XI
247 This Sornek is the counterpart of the Sornek who was Laarin Andos’s predecessor as DTI director, retiring in 2369.  Simok was originally called Somek until I remembered I already had a Sornek.  (A massage could’ve helped with that…)
257 “having is not so satisfying a thing as wanting”: A paraphrase of Spock’s parting words to Stonn in “Amok Time.”  Spock himself said at the time that it was not logical; it seemed appropriate for the alternate T’Pring to disagree.
Chapter XII
263 The L1 libration point is a point of unstable gravitational equilibrium located between a planet and its sun (or a moon and its planet).
266 Retrocausation is an event in the future causing an event in the past.  A “Novikov loop” means a self-consistent time loop, a reference to the self-consistency principle formulated by Russian physicist Igor Novikov in the 1980s (and somehow I apparently managed to avoid mentioning his name in WTC, a surprising oversight).
Chapter XIII
268 See the ExM annotations for reference for these characters.
269 TNG: “The Vengeance Factor” established that when Acamar’s wartorn civilization united, the Gatherer clan remained the sole holdout, leaving the planet to become interstellar nomads “almost a century” before the episode, which was set in 2366.  The reference here would put that event 91 years before the episode, in February 2275.
272 The description of the annunciator display in the corridor ceiling is based on personal correspondence from Rick Sternbach, who designed them for TMP.
274 I’m assuming that the Enterprise‘s initial survey of the remote sector in question would have happened shortly before TAS: “Beyond the Farthest Star,” where they (again) probed to the edge of the galaxy.

Doppler shifts are the changes in the apparent wavelength of a light or sound as it approaches or recedes.  In astronomy, they are used to compute the motion of stars and galaxies toward (blueshift) or away from (redshift) the observer, so Spock could use them to calculate the motion of the stars he’s detecting.  The variable stars in the cluster would also have predictable changes in luminosity over time.  These would let Spock estimate the date that his observations of the cluster are coming from.
282 Dulmur’s comment to Captain Sisko was at the end of “Trials and Tribble-ations,” absolving Sisko of his unnecessary interaction with Kirk by saying he probably would’ve done the same.
Chapter XIV
283 Dissociation can refer to a range of detached mental states from daydreaming to fugue and depersonalization.  The condition of the timeship crew would be toward the severe end of the spectrum.
284 Catalepsy is a rigid, nonresponsive state and can affect breathing.  It basically means being “frozen stiff.”
The name Tracey Amritraj for a former member of Starfleet Intelligence is a holdover from my earlier Mission: Impossible kick (see p. 235 note), named in honor of IMF team members Tracey (Lee Meriwether) and Willy Armitage (Peter Lupus), with the last name changed for the sake of diversity.  It is not specifically meant as a reference to ST IV: The Voyage Home cast member Vijay Amritraj.
I avoided writing from a specific character’s viewpoint in the first scene because I wished to do a “pullback” and reveal that it was actually being watched by Lucsly and Dulmur.  I didn’t feel it quite worked as a continuous sequence, though, so I inserted a scene break for the “pullback,” which somewhat ruins the effect, I fear.
285 Joaquin Perez was a security guard in TMP, present for the Ilia probe’s sonic shower scene; his first name was established in ExM.  His service on the Bozeman and Everett was established in WTC.
288 I got tired of referring to McCoy’s potion as a “theragen derivative,” so I coined “paratheragen.”
Come to think of it, “theragen” is an odd name for a nerve gas, since it would basically be Greek for “beastmaker” or “animal producer.”
289 The bit of verse Gabler quotes is from the A.A. Milne poem “Halfway Down,” from his collection When We Were Very Young.
293 I’m not fully satisfied with the explanation for why the timeship has DTI markings.  But I couldn’t resist the shocking reveal in the Prologue.
295 WTC established that the “black hole” that flung V’Ger across space (and time, as established in ExM) was in fact the Black Star; see WTC notes p. 87.
Chapter XV
302 Pava is a character originally created by Chris Cooper for Marvel’s 1996 Starfleet Academy comic book, and later introduced into the Pocket novel continuity as a member of the starship Titan‘s crew in The Red King by Andy Mangels & Michael A. Martin.  In the Prime universe she is only a lieutenant as of the early 2380s, so her alternate self would have had to be promoted rather more rapidly.
304-5 The problem with this sequence was that the timeship was being shielded by a forcefield envelope some distance from its hull and generated by another ship, so it seemed there was no reason why an impact against that distant shield envelope would cause any noticeable noise or vibration inside the ship; but such sound and fury is a staple of Trek space-battle scenes.  Fortunately, I found a solution at Project Rho’s Atomic Rockets site: impulsive shock.  Energy like that of a nearby nuclear or antimatter detonation could heat/irradiate a surface enough to flash-vaporize its top layer, and if the vapor expands at faster than the speed of sound through the material, the effect would be tantamount to a conventional explosive going off directly against the surface.  So all those Trek episodes where a ship was rocked by a near miss of a weapon weren’t as implausible as they seemed.  (The “thermal shock” I mention on p. 304 is a milder affair, just the hull being instantly heated and abruptly expanding, causing tremors through the ship.  “Shock” is probably a misnomer for that, in retrospect.)
305 “prochronistic”: See WTC notes p. 4.  Two books now and I still haven’t managed to use its opposite, “parachronistic.”
Manheim and Vard were temporal physicists featured in WTC.  Manheim first appeared in TNG: “We’ll Always Have Paris.”
306 I’m not sure how much sense this makes, but I’m assuming that since the gravitational effects in question are mathematically equivalent to magnetism, then two gravitomagnetic fields of opposite polarity would attract each other like magnets.

The loss of solidity due to interphase was seen in “The Tholian Web.”  Characters going “out of phase” and becoming intangible are a sci-fi staple featured in TNG: “The Next Phase” and elsewhere.  Somehow those characters are able to pass through walls, tables, and the like, but never fall through the floor!  Here I attempt to explain that discrepancy.  (There’s also the discrepancy of how they can breathe or hear if they’ve become intangible to air molecules.  But offering an explanation for that was too much of a digression.  I imagine that particles as small as air molecules can be more easily affected by a phase-shifting phenomenon, perhaps spreading out across multiple phases.  This kinda sorta makes sense if you assume we’re talking about different quantum states of the universe, since subatomic particles or small ensembles such as molecules can exist in multiple states at once more easily than macroscopic objects can.)
307 The emergency manual monitor set was introduced in “Mirror, Mirror.”
310 Normally, writing “staticky” transmissions involves cutting off words in the middle as the signal drops in and out, but since the words here are being translated on the receiving end, only complete words are heard.
The explanation here lets me fill in a gap in the temporal theory I posited in WTC.  I explained the mechanism by which one timeline could seem to “overwrite” the other by having the two parallel timelines merge together once the moment of the original time travel was reached.  But I failed to explain the commonplace scenario where time travelers would then restore the original history afterward. If the quantum information from the original timeline had been erased, overwritten by the new one after the moment of convergence, how could it then be recovered?  The answer: there is a period of flux in which the old information remains present in a “suppressed” state, creating an opportunity for time travelers to recover it.  This has some basis in the concepts discussed in WTC p. 462, the idea that all quantum information remains part of the universe even if it’s undetectable, so that a “palimpsest” of a deleted history can remain.
316 The interpretation of the set dressings on the upper level of the TMP engineering set as a computer bay comes from Mr. Scott’s Guide to the Enterprise.
317 David A. Kimble’s famous cutaway poster of the refit Enterprise shows the torpedo tubes going directly around the intermix shaft on the top level of engineering, but in TMP that level has a full ceiling with no torpedo tubes in sight.  I’m compromising here and placing the tubes just above the ceiling.

What T’Pring was about to say, so I assumed, is that it became necessary for the Klingons to accept aid after the Praxis explosion, as seen in the Prime universe in ST VI: The Undiscovered Country.  Then again, since the Praxis disaster was an artificially induced event, it wouldn’t necessarily have happened in the Protectorate/Compact universe, at least not at the same time.  Although as suggested before, there does often seem to be historical resonance between timelines so that similar events occur in different ones.
Chapter XVI
329 The Vedala seen in “The Jihad” never adopted a quadrupedal stance — indeed, it barely moved at all due to the limited animation — but it seems a logical extrapolation from the species’ appearance.
335 My basis for the description of the ship’s infall to the neutron star is “Radiation from Comets Near Neutron Stars” by Harwit, M. & Salpeter, E. E., The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 186, p.L37, 1973.

Initially I intended the Vedala to disappear promptly after the events of 2275, but I learned that The Lost Era: Serpents Among the Ruins by David R. George III establishes that a Klingon ambassador serving Azetbur’s government had previously negotiated with the Vedala, meaning they had to be still around to deal with the Klingons sometime between 2293 and 2311.  So while they cut off their dealings with the UFP after 2275, it must have taken a while before they left the region completely.

I attempted to keep this novel consistent with the story “Echoes of Yesterday” by Mark A. Altman in DC’s Star Trek Special #3 (1995), in which aliens learn of the slingshot effect by reading Kirk’s mind.  Of course, that story did not make the same assumptions that I have here, instead suggesting that all they learned from Kirk was the basic idea of slingshot and they deduced the specifics on their own, but if you squint a little it still fits with what I established here.  I was tempted to include a reference to it as one of the times Kirk used time travel for beneficial ends after 2275 (the story is set aboard the Enterprise-A, which pursues the aliens into the past), but I felt it would be too obscure and unnecessary.
343 The layout of the arboretum is based on Mr. Scott’s Guide to the Enterprise.  The Centauran oak reference is an oblique nod to the novel Crisis on Centaurus by Brad Ferguson, which asserted that Kirk owned a cabin in the Alpha Centauri system.


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